The administration of medications having selective toxicity towards microorganisms implicated in infections, rather than host cells, is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy. Antibiotics, that are antimicrobial agents, are among the most widely used antimicrobials. Antimicrobial chemotherapy is used to treat infectious diseases by attacking the bacteria that cause them with medicines that have specific toxicity against them. These medications' selective toxicity causes severe damage to pathogens while causing minimal harm to the host. The existence of exploitable metabolic differences between infections and host cells is required for such selective toxicity to be feasible. Chemotherapeutic drugs can target pathogen activities that are exclusive to pathogens and not found in the host, or pathogen functions that are shared by the host but differ in relevance between pathogen and host, or pathogen functions that are comparable but not identical to those in the host.