The process through which an infection causes disease is known as pathogenesis. Pathogens cause disease, and pathogenesis is the study of how diseases develop. The mechanism through which viruses cause disease is known as viral pathogenesis. Viral pathogenesis can be summarised as follows: viruses proliferate and kill cells, resulting in disease. Viral pathogenesis is the study of how a virus interacts with its host on a variety of levels. Despite the fact that each virus's pathogenesis is distinct, there are some phases in the virus's life cycle that are shared by all pathogenic viruses.
Emerging viruses are a serious hazard to human and animal health around the world, and outbreaks of these infections are becoming more common as socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological conditions change. Limitations in resource capacity or control in outbreak "hotspots" frequently thwart prompt and successful medical and public health response efforts. Furthermore, new viral infections frequently cause severe disease, with few or no treatments available to reduce disease morbidity and mortality. To guide optimal treatment and the development of effective therapeutics, better understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to organ injury and repair is required.